Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (1862-1919)

Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky
Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky


Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (January 2, 1862 in Gatchina near Saint Petersburg — November 15, 1919 in Heidelberg, Germany), was a Russian engineer, electrician, and inventor. Born in a mixed family between a Polish noble family originating from Mazowsze, and a Russian noble family. Emigrated to Germany due to political persecution after the assassination of Alexander II of Russia (1881). He studied at the Darmstadt University of Technology (TH Darmstadt) in Germany. From 1887 he worked for AEG.

Dobrovolsky, age 22


One of the founders (as Nikola Tesla) of three-phase electrical systems, he developed the three-phase electrical generator and a three-phase electrical motor (1888) and studied star and delta connections. The triumph of the three-phase system was displayed in Europe at the International Electro-Technical Exhibition of 1891, where Dolivo-Dobrovolsky used this system to transmit electric power at the distance of 176 km with 75% efficiency. In 1891 he also created a three-phase transformer and short-circuited (squirrel-cage) induction motor.


He designed the world's first three-phase hydroelectric power plant in 1891. During his life he obtained over 60 patents.


In 1911 he received an honorary doctorate from the TH Darmstadt.


Patents (Comming soon):






  • US469515 A - Electric machine - Filed on Aug 3, 1891 and granted on Feb 23, 1892




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